新概念雙語:盤點世界上最致命的15種生物
來源: 環球網校 2020-07-02 08:52:00 頻道: 新概念

你大概以為,讓最多人喪生的動物一定是個猛獸,但事實上,世界上最致命的動物不是鯊魚,也不是虎豹。最可怕的動物,其實就在我們身邊。

15. Sharks: 6 deaths a year

鯊魚:每年殺死6個人

Shark attacks are pretty rare. In 2014, there were just three deaths globally related to shark attacks, and in 2015, there were six, which is about the average.

鯊魚襲擊人類是很罕見的。2014年,全球只有三例因鯊魚襲擊而死亡的案例,2015年有6例,和平均水平大致相當。

14. Wolves: 10 deaths a year

狼:每年殺死10個人

截圖來自Science Alert網站  Wolf attacks are not common in many parts of the world where wolves live.

在世界上許多狼群居住的地方,被狼襲擊并不多見。

A review of wolf attacks found that very few happened in the 50 years leading up to 2002 in Europe and North America, though there were a few hundred reported over the course of two decades in some regions of India, averaging out to close to 10 per year.

一份針對狼群襲擊的報告發現,在2002年前的50年間,歐洲和北美洲很少發生狼襲擊人的事件,不過近20年來,在印度一些地區發生過幾百起人被狼襲擊的事件,平均下來大概每年10起。

13. Lions: 22+ deaths a year

獅子:每年殺死至少22個人

Estimates for lion-related deaths also vary year-to-year. A 2005 study found that since 1990, lions have killed 563 people in Tanzania alone, an average of about 22 a year.

命喪獅口的人數每年都不一樣。2005年的一項研究發現,自1990年以來,光是在坦桑尼亞,就有563個人被獅子殺死,平均每年22人。

Additional deaths likely occur outside of Tanzania, but it's difficult to find a concrete global number.

在坦桑尼亞以外的其他地區,應該也有被獅子殺死的人,但難以得出一個具體的全球數據。

12. Elephants: 500 deaths a year

大象:每年殺死500個人

Elephants are also responsible for a number of deaths per year - a 2005 National Geographic article said that 500 people a year are killed in elephant attacks.

大象每年也會導致不少人喪生。2005年刊登在《國家地理》的一篇文章寫道,每年有500人死于大象襲擊。

Far more elephants have been killed by people.

但是被人殺死的大象比這要多得多。

11. Hippopotamuses: 500 deaths a year

河馬:每年殺死500個人

For a long time, hippos were considered the most deadly animal in Africa. Hippos are known for being aggressive toward humans, including tipping over boats.

長時間以來,河馬一直被認為是非洲最致命的動物。眾所周知,河馬對人有攻擊性,還會把人類乘坐的船打翻。

10. Tapeworms: 700 deaths a year

絳蟲:每年殺死700個人

Moving to parasites, the tapeworm is responsible for an infection called cysticerosis that kills an estimated 700 people a year.

作為寄生蟲,絳蟲會讓人們感染上腦囊蟲病,據估算每年導致約700人喪生。

9. Crocodiles: 1,000 deaths a year

鱷魚:每年殺死1000個人

Crocodiles are now considered the large animal responsible for the most human deaths in Africa, according to the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, though concrete numbers are tricky to gather.

據聯合國糧食及農業組織,鱷魚現在是在非洲導致最多人死亡的大型動物,不過具體數據難以收集到。

8. Ascaris roundworms: 4,500 deaths a year

蛔蟲:每年殺死4500個人

The Ascaris roundworm leads to an infection called aschariasis that kills an estimated 4,500 people a year, according to a 2013 study.

根據2013年的一項研究,蛔蟲會讓人感染蛔蟲病,每年導致約4500人喪生。

The WHO notes that the infection takes place in people's small intestine, and it's a disease that affects more children than adults.

世界衛生組織指出,感染發生在人的小腸部位,這種病多發于兒童。

7. Tsetse flies: 10,000 deaths a year

采采蠅:每年殺死1萬人

The tsetse fly transmits a disease called sleeping sickness, a parasitic infection that at first can lead to headaches, fever, joint pain, and itchiness, but later can lead to some serious neurological problems. The number of deaths has been decreasing.

采采蠅會傳播一種名為昏睡癥的疾病,這種寄生蟲感染病一開始會引發頭痛、發燒、關節痛和瘙癢,但過后會導致嚴重的神經問題。因這種病而喪生的人數近年來有所下降。

With about 10,000 new cases now reported each year, the estimated number of annual deaths is likely on the decline as well.

現在每年報告的采采蠅致死事件約為1萬例,這一數字可能也在下降。

6. Assassin bugs: 12,000 deaths a year

獵蝽:每年殺死1.2萬人

The assassin bug, also called the kissing bug, is responsible for carrying Chagas disease, which kills about 12,000 people a year on average.

獵蝽攜帶查加斯病毒,平均每年導致1.2萬人喪生。獵蝽又名“吻獵蝽”。

Chagas disease is a parasitic infection passed by the bug, which got its nickname by biting people on the face.

查加斯病是獵蝽傳播的一種寄生蟲感染病,獵蝽因愛叮咬人臉而得到“吻獵蝽”的綽號。

5. Freshwater snails: 20,000+ deaths a year

淡水蝸牛/淡水螺:每年殺死2萬人以上

The freshwater snail carries parasitic worms that infect people with a disease called schistosomiasis that can cause intense abdominal pain and blood in the stool or urine, depending on the area that's affected.

淡水蝸牛攜帶的寄生蟲會讓人們染上血吸蟲病。這種病會導致劇烈腹痛、便血或尿血,具體癥狀取決于感染的部位。

Millions of people contract the infection, and the WHO estimates that anywhere between 20,000 and 200,000 deaths can be attributed to schistosomiasis.

數百萬人感染了這種病,世界衛生組織估計每年有2萬到20萬人因血吸蟲病而喪生。

4. Dogs: 35,000 deaths a year

狗:每年殺死3.5萬人

Dogs - specifically dogs infected by the rabies virus - are one of the deadliest animals out there, though the virus can be prevented using vaccines.

狗——尤其是感染狂犬病毒的狗——是世界上最致命的動物之一,不過狂犬病可以通過注射疫苗來預防。

About 35,000 deaths can be attributed to rabies, and of those cases, 99 percent are caused by dogs, according to WHO.

根據世衛組織的數據,每年約有3.5萬人死于狂犬病,這些人當中有99%是因為被狗咬傷而發病。

3. Snakes: 100,000 deaths a year

蛇:每年殺死10萬人

Snake bites kill more than 100,000 people a year as of 2015. Worse still, there's a troubling shortage of an essential antivenom.

截至2015年的數據,蛇每年咬死10萬人以上。更糟的是,救命的抗蛇毒素還非常短缺。

2. Humans: 437,000 deaths a year

人類:每年殺死43.7萬人

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, there were about 437,000 homicides in 2012, making humans the second most deadly animal (and the deadliest mammal) to humans.

根據聯合國毒品與犯罪辦公室的數據,2012年發生了大約43.7萬起殺人案,這讓人類成為對人類而言第二致命的動物(也是最致命的哺乳動物)。

We are not quite our own worst enemy - but we're pretty close.

我們不是自己最大的敵人,但是也差不多了。

1. Mosquitoes: 750,000 deaths a year

蚊子:每年殺死75萬人

Mosquitoes - the pesky bugs that suck blood and transmit viruses from person to person - are responsible for the most animal-related deaths.

蚊子——這種吸血又在人與人之間傳播病毒的討厭昆蟲——是導致最多人死亡的動物。

Malaria by itself is responsible for more than half of mosquito-related deaths, predominantly in sub-Saharan Africa, though it's on the decline: The incidence of malaria fell by 37 percent between 2000 and 2015, according to the World Health Organisation.

超半數死于蚊蟲叮咬的人都患上了瘧疾,其中絕大多數是在撒哈拉以南的非洲,不過死亡人數正在下降:根據世界衛生組織的數據,2000年到2015年間,死于瘧疾的人數下降了37%。

Dengue fever, another mosquito-borne disease, has become a leading cause of hospitalisation and death among children in some Asian and Latin-American countries.

另一種蚊媒疾病——登革熱已經成為一些亞洲和拉美國家兒童就醫和死亡的首要原因。

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